Original article| Volume 86, ISSUE 2, P145-151, August 1953

Download started.


The treatment of ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs

Criteria for spinal fusion
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The American Journal of Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Mixter M.J.
        • Barr J.S.
        Rupture of the intervertebral disc with involvement of the spinal canal.
        New England J. M. 1934; 211: 210
        • Love J.G.
        • Walsh M.N.
        Protruded intervertebral disks.
        Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 1943; 77: 497
        • Spurling R.G.
        • Mayfield F.H.
        • Rogers J.B.
        Hypertrophy of the ligamenta flava as a cause of low back pain.
        J. A. M. A. 1937; 109: 928-932
        • Dandy W.E.
        Newer aspects of ruptured intervertebral discs.
        Ann. Surg. 1944; 119: 481-484
        • Love J.G.
        Special nerve root retractor used in removing protruded intervertebral disks.
        in: Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin.12. 1937: 393-394
        • Spurling R.G.
        • Grantham E.G.
        Ruptured intervertebral disc in the lumbar region.
        Am. J. Surg. 1948; 75: 140
        • Ghormley R.K.
        • Love J.G.
        • Young H.H.
        The “combined operation” in low back and sciatic pain.
        J. A. M. A. 1942; 120: 1171-1176
        • Smith A.DeF.
        • Derry E.M.
        • Hagman G.L.
        Herniation of the nucleus pulposus. A study of one hundred cases treated by operation.
        J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1944; 26: 821-826
        • Barr J.D.
        Ruptured intervertebral disc and sciatic pains.
        J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1947; 29: 429-437
        • Dandy W.E.
        Treatment of recurrent attacks of low backache without sciatica.
        J. A. M. A. 1944; 125: 1175-1178
        • Poppen J.L.
        Herniated intervertebral discs. Analysis of 400 treated cases.
        New England J. M. 1945; 232: 211-215
        • Spurling R.G.
        • Grantham E.G.
        The end results of surgery for ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs. A followup study of 327 cases.
        J. Neurosurg. 1949; 6: 57
        • Lenhard R.E.
        End result study of the intervertebral disc.
        J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1947; 29: 425-428
        • Raaf J.
        • Berglund G.
        Results of operations for lumbar protruded intervertebral disc.
        J. Neurosurg. 1944; 6: 160-168
        • Caldwell G.A.
        • Sheppard W.B.
        Criteria for spinal fusion following removal of protruded nucleus pulposus.
        J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1948; 30: 971-980
        • Shinners B.M.
        • Hamby W.B.
        Protruded lumbar intervertebral discs, results following surgical and non-surgical therapy.
        J. Neurosurg. 1949; 6: 450-457
        • Marble H.C.
        • Bishop W.A.
        Intervertebral disc injury; analysis from an industrial standpoint.
        J. Indust. Hyg. & Toxicol. 1945; 27: 103-109
        • Marble H.C.
        • Bishop W.A.
        Intervertebral disc injury, an analysis of 113 industrial cases.
        J. Indust. Hyg. & Toxicol. 1949; 31: 46-50
        • Love J.G.
        The disc factor in low-back pain with or without sciatica.
        J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1947; 29: 438-447
        • Bosworth D.M.
        Clothespin graft of the spine for spondylolesthesis and laminal defects.
        Am. J. Surg. 1945; 67: 61-67
        • Frieberg S.
        • Hirsch C.
        On late results of operative treatment of intervertebral disc prolapses in the lumbar region.
        Acta chir. Scandinav. 1946; 93: 161-168
        • O'Connell J.E.A.
        Indications for and results of the excision of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusions. A review of 500 cases.
        Ann. Roy. Coll. Surg. 1950; 6: 403-413
        • Berenn S.N.
        Ruptured intervertebral disc syndrome. Is it an orthopedic or neurosurgical problem.
        J. Omaha Mid-West Clin. Soc. 1946; 7: 63-69
        • Shinners R.M.
        • Hamby W.B.
        The results of surgical removal of protruded lumbar intervertebral discs.
        J. Neurosurg. 1944; 1: 117-122
        • Cloward R.B.
        The Treatment of Ruptured Lumbar Intervertebral Discs by Vertebral Body Fusion.
        in: Scientific Exhibit A. M. A. Convention, Atlantic CityJune 11–16, 1951 (Honorable Mention Award)
      1. Cloward, R. B. Treatment of ruptured intervertebral discs by vertebral body fusion. IV. Statistical review of 262 cases followed up to 8 years. (In press.)

        • Barr J.S.
        Sciatica caused by disk lesions. Forty cases of rupture of disc occurring in low lumbar spine and causing pressure on cauda equina.
        J. Bone & Joint Surg. 1937; 13: 323-342
        • Cloward R.B.
        Changes in the vertebra caused by ruptured intervertebral discs. Observations on their formation and treatment.
        Am. J. Surg. 1952; 84: 151-161
        • Cloward R.B.
        Recent improvement in the surgical treatment of low back pain due to ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs.
        Hawaii M. J. 1952; 11: 279-285
        • Lindbloom K.
        Technique and results in myelogram and disc puncture.
        Acta radiol. 1950; 34: 321-330
        • Lindbloom K.
        Backache and its relation to rupture of the intervertebral disks.
        Radiology. 1951; 57: 710-719
        • Cloward R.B.
        • Buzaid L.L.
        Discography: technique, indications and evaluation of the normal and abnormal intervertebral disc.
        Am. J. Roentgenol. 1952; 68: 552-564