Racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in diagnosis, treatment, and survival of patients with breast cancer


      • Higher stage of breast cancer presentation is correlated with Black race, low socioeconomic status, and no insurance coverage.
      • This correlation with non-White race was compounded for worsening socioeconomic status and lack of insurance coverage.
      • Similar findings were found for survival in breast cancer and rates of breast reconstruction in the United States.



      The objective of this study was to determine the influence of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) on breast cancer outcomes.


      A retrospective analysis was performed of Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), Non-Hispanic White (NHW), and Hispanic patients with non-metastatic breast cancer in the SEER cancer registry between 2007 and 2016.


      A total of 382,975 patients were identified. On multivariate analysis, NHB (OR 1.18, 95%CI: 1.15–1.20) and Hispanic (OR 1.20, 95%CI: 1.17–1.22) patients were more likely to present with higher stage disease than NHW patients. There was an increased likelihood of not undergoing breast-reconstruction for NHB (OR 1.07, 95%CI: 1.03–1.11) and Hispanic patients (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.54–1.66). NHB patients had increased hazard for all-cause mortality (HR: 1.13, 95%CI 1.10–1.16). All-cause mortality increased across SES categories (lower SES: HR 1.33, 95%CI 1.30–1.37, middle SES: HR 1.20, 95%CI 1.17–1.23).


      This population-based analysis confirms worse disease presentation, access to surgical therapy, and survival across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors. These disparities were compounded across worsening SES and insurance coverage.


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