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The need for increasing female leadership in surgical departments

      The modern medical landscape is dominated by males, and medications and medical devices are designed by males for males. Sex discordance of surgeon-patient is associated with poorer outcomes for female patients of male surgeons, but not male patients of female surgeons.
      • Wallis C.J.D.
      • Jerath A.
      • Coburn N.
      • et al.
      Association of surgeon-patient sex concordance with postoperative outcomes.
      Recent studies have revealed that women patients fare better with women surgeons; some possible contributing factors include that female surgeons are more likely to study female-focused topics and invent things to improve the health of women,
      • Koning R.
      • Samila S.
      • Ferguson J.-P.
      Who do we invent for? Patents by women focus more on women's health, but few women get to invent.
      describe sex-differences in their research,
      • Sugimoto C.R.
      • Ahn Y.-Y.
      • Smith E.
      • et al.
      Factors affecting sex-related reporting in medical research: a cross-disciplinary bibliometric analysis.
      and have better patient outcomes.
      • Wallis C.J.D.
      • Ravi B.
      • Coburn N.
      • et al.
      Comparison of postoperative outcomes among patients treated by male and female surgeons: a population based matched cohort study.
      Female leadership in surgery is essential for the building of the pipeline to nurture female surgeons. We aimed to describe the gender composition of surgical chairs, assess gender disparities in surgical chairs, and identify potential female-specific career enhancement strategies.
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