Fertility & childbearing outcomes of female plastic surgeons: How far have we come in 25 years?

Published:September 21, 2022DOI:


      • The incidence of miscarriages is nearly double that of 1995.
      • The odds of experiencing infertility are twice as high.
      • There is a considerable decrease in the rate of elective abortion.
      • Obstetrical complications occur at similar rates and remain unacceptably high.



      To understand whether the fertility and childbearing outcomes of female plastic surgeons have changed, this study compares current data to historical data from 25 years ago.


      An IRB-approved survey was sent to female plastic surgery residents, fellows, and members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons in 2018–2020. The results were compared to historical data from 1995.


      There were 351 respondents with a response rate of 26%. Fifty-four percent of women had children, which was similar to 1995 (54% vs. 51%, p = 0.45). Miscarriage affected 40% of women, a rate twice as high as 1995 (18.9%, p = n/a). The prevalence of abortion was 13%, significantly lower than 1995 (26%, p < 0.005). The rate of infertility was 54%, significantly higher than 1995 (33%, p < 0.005). Obstetrical complications were slightly higher than in 1995 (61% vs. 57%, p = n/a).


      There is a disappointing lack of progress in fertility and childbearing outcomes among female plastic surgeons.


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